Subhash Chandra Bose, nicknamed Netaji, is a prominent Indian revolutionary in the liberation struggle against the British Empire in India. He also led an Indian national army from abroad against Western powers during World War II. He lived during the time of Mohandas K. Gandhi, sometimes a supporter and sometimes an enemy. Bose was best known for his way of fighting for independence and for pushing for social policies.
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The son of a wealthy and prominent Bengali lawyer, Subhash Chandra Bose studied at Presidency College, Calcutta (Kolkata), where he was expelled in 1916 for nationalism, and Scottish Churches College (graduated in 1919). He was then sent by his parents to the University of Cambridge in England to prepare for the Indian Civil Service. In 1920 he passed the civil service examination, but in April 1921, after hearing of the national unrest in India, he resigned immediately and returned to India. Throughout his career, especially in its early days, he was supported financially and emotionally by my older brother, Sarat Chandra Bose (1889-1950), a wealthy Calcutta lawyer and the Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) politically.
Bose has joined a non-partisan organization founded by Mohandas K. Gandhi, who has made the Indian National Congress a virtual non-violent organization. Bose was advised by Gandhi to work under Chitta Ranjan Das, a politician in Bengal. There Bose became a youth teacher, journalist, and volunteer commander at the Bengal Congress. His activities led to his arrest in December 1921. In 1924 he was appointed chief executive officer of Calcutta Municipal Corporation, with Das as mayor. Bose was deported to Burma (Myanmar) on suspicion of plotting to assassinate a minor. He was released in 1927, returned to find the news of the Bengal Congress confused after Das’ death, and Bose was elected president of the Bengal Congress. Shortly after that he and Jawaharlal Nehru became the two general secretaries of the Indian National Congress. Together they represent the opposition, the left side of the group against the most relaxed group, and the Gandhian group on the right.
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In Nazi Germany Bose was under the tutelage of the newly formed Special Bureau of India, under the direction of Adam von Trott zu Solz. He and other Indians gathered in Berlin regularly broadcast on German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio since January 1942, speaking English, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Gujarati, and Pashto.
A little over a year after the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia, Bose left Germany, boarded German and Japanese submarines and flew, and arrived in May 1943 in Tokyo. On July 4 he took over the leadership of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia and went on, with the help and influence of the Japanese, to form a trained army of about 40,000 in Southeast Asia under Japanese rule. On October 21, 1943, Bose announced the establishment of an interim Indian state government, with the so-called Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj), and Japanese troops, passing through Rangoon (Yangon) and crossing the country into India, reaching Indian soil. on March 18, 1944, and moved to Kohima and the plains of Imphal. In a fierce battle, the combined forces of the Indians and the Japanese, who lacked support from the Japanese spirit, were defeated and forced to retreat; the Indian National Army however for some time succeeded in maintaining its status as a liberation army, based in Burma and then in Indochina. With the Japanese conquest, however, Bose’s fortunes plummeted.
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